Class II Navigation
Class II navigation refers to the navigation of a flight that’s not categorized as class I navigation and includes operations that take place outside of the operational service volumes of ICAO standard NAVAIDs.
This type of navigation is does not depend on the aircraft instrumentation. It also includes the use of dead reckoning and radio navigation. In the event of a radio malfunction, class II navigation provides the pilot with the resources to continue to fly safely.
Recognizing Dead Reckoning
Dead reckoning is the term given to the process of calculating the current position of an aircraft by referencing a previously determined position. In order to calculate the position, the following measurements must be used:
However, dead reckoning has mostly become obsolete due to the advances in NAVAIDs.
Returning to Radio Navigation
Radio navigation is the process of using radio frequencies to determine the position of an aircraft. There are four radio navigation systems available for use during VFR flights:
- GPS – Global Repositioning System
- Loran-C – Long Range Navigation
- NDB – Nondirectional Radio Beacon
- VOR – VHF Omni Directional Range
In recent years, class II airspace has been essentially removed from the globe, and is typically referred to when discussing flights from a historical perspective.